Bali - History
By the Bronze era, around 300 BC, quite an evolved culture existed in Bali. A Chinese scholar, Yi-Tsing, in 670 AD reported that on a trip to India he had visited a Buddhist country called Bali.
It wasn't until the 11th century that Bali received the first strong influx of Hindu and Javanese cultures. The old Javanese language, Kawi, became the language used by the aristocracy, one of the many Javanese traits and customs adopted by the cause.
With the death of Airlanggha, in the middle of the 11th century, Bali enjoyed a period of autonomy. However, this proved to be short-lived as in 1284, the East Javanese king Kertanegara, conquered Bali and ruled over it from Java. However in 1343, Bali was brought back under Javanese control by its defeat at the hands of Gajah Mada, a general in the last of the great Hindu-Javanese empires, the Majapahit.
Bali history has become quite unique and distinctive since it is fully supported by its society's attitude which pays special heed to their ancestral archeological remains. The belief in ancestors is what makes the awareness of history so great in Bali. Hindu influences from Java grew from the reign of King Airlangga (1019-42) and the rock cut memorials of Gunung Kawi are a legacy of these 11th century links to Java.
Based on the information found in an 8th century AD inscription, it could be said that the Ancient Balinese historical period covered the time between the 8th and the 14th century AD, when the Majapahit's Gajah Mada expedition invaded and defeated Bali. Gajah Mada's expedition to Bali was done when the Bedahulu kingdom under King Astasura Ratna Bumi Banten and Patih Kebo Iwo governed Bali.
Majapahit appointed Sri Kresna Kepakisan to lead the government in Bali under the consideration of the existence of a blood relation between he and the people of Bali Aga. As Islam spread in Java the Majapahit Court progressively moved to Bali. Making its final exodus with priests, artists and intellectuals, in 1478
Dutch's Colonization Period
When Buleleng fell into Dutch hands, the Dutch government began to intervene in the management of the government in Bali. Van Bloemen Waanders as the first controller in Bali. Dutch invasion of the south, which climaxed in a suicidal puputan, when the Denpasar nobility burnt their own houses, then, dressed in their finest jewellery and waving the golden krises, marched straight into the Dutch guns. The king of Tabanan, Karangasem, Gianyar and Klungkung soon capitulated and Bali became part of the Dutch East Indies.
After going through several battles, the Japanese army landed on Sanur Beach in February 1942. The Japanese army entered Denpasar without encountering any resistance. From Denpasar, Japan controlled the entire island of Bali. At first, the party that established Japanese power in Bali was the Japanese Army (Rikugun). Later, when the situation became stable, the power of government was handed over to a civilian government.
On 20 November 1946, starting at dawn, the Dutch forces began to encircle Marga Village. During the ensuing war, many members of the Dutch advance force were killed. The violent battle continued, involving all members of the Ngurah Rai forces, which were determined not to retreat from the battle until all their forces were defeated. It was here that the Ngurah Rai force held Puputan resulting in all 96 members of the force being killed, including Rai himself. About 400 members of the Dutch force were also killed during the fierce battle.
On August 17th, 1945, Indonesia was declared independent by its first President, Soekarno.
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