Geography in Turkey
Geographically, Turkey forms a natural bridge between the old world continents of Asia, Africa and Europe. The Anatolian peninsula is the westernmost point of Asia, divided from Europe by the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits. Thrace is the western part of Turkey on the European continent.
Turkey extends more than 1,600 km from west to east but generally less than 800 km from north to south. Total land area is about 780,580 km2, of which 756,816 km2 are in Asia and 23,764 km2 in Europe (Thrace), and a Coastline of 7,200 km.
Turkey is situated in Anatolia and the Balkans, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria. The geographic coordinates of the country lie at: 39°00′N 35°00′ E39°N 35°E.
Anatolia roughly rectangular peninsula situated bridgelike between Europe and Asia. The Anatolian part of Turkey accounts for 97% of the country's area. It is also known as Asia Minor, Asiatic Turkey or the Anatolian Plateau.
The European portion of Turkey, known as Thrace, encompasses 3% of the total area but is home to more than 10% of the total population. Istanbul, the largest city of Europe and Turkey, has a population of 11,372,613.
Land boundaries: 2,627 km border countries: Greece 206 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Armenia 268 km, Nakhchivan (Azerbaijan) 9 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km.
Half of the Turkey’s land area is higher than 1000 meters and two thirds higher than 800 meters. Mountain ranges extend in an east-west direction parallel to the north and south coasts, and these are a principal factor in determining ecological conditions.
Turkey has one peak of over 5000 meters in altitude (Mt. Ararat), three over 4000 metres and 129 peaks exceeding 3000 meters.
Apart from the Asi river in Anatolia and the Meriç in Thracian Turkey, all Turkey's rivers have their sources within its borders and flow into the sea, into neighboring countries or into interior drainages. Turkey has one peak of over 5000 metres in altitude (Mt. Ararat), three over 4000 metres and 129 peaks exceeding 3000 metres. Such an irregular topographic structure has created a wide diversity of ecological conditions and species. Now let us take a look at the geological history of the country, which has also played a part in creating the natural diversity which exists today.
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