History of India
India has one of the longest and most well-documented histories of all the world’s civilizations. The history of the Indian people began in the Indus Valley, in northern India. The Indus Valley people flourished and populated much of the north-western Indian subcontinent. This was a bronze age civilization and boomed from around c. 3300 to 1300 BCE. Other notable civilizations co-existing on the planet alongside the Indus Valley people at this time were the ancient Egyptians and the ancient Mesopotamians.
Successive empires have ruled over different regions in India, from the Achaemenid Persian empire around 543 BCE to Alexander the Great’s conquest in 326 BCE. The Mughal’s ruled over parts of India in the 1500s, and the Sikh’s ruled the Punjab region in the 1700s. As you’d imagine, the many empires and kingdoms ruling over India have contributed strongly to Indian cultural diversity.
India had maritime business links with the Roman Empire through the Kerala people, around AD 77. In 712 CE, the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim invaded and conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab. This allowed for multiple invasions between the 10th and 15th centuries, setting the stage for several successive invasions between the 10th and 15th centuries CE from Central Asia. Eventually, multiple Muslim empires were formed on the subcontinent.
The Mughal Empire, which helped spread Islam throughout India and south-east Asia, declined in the early eighteenth century. This decline gave rise to other ethnicities and kingdoms, such as the Afghans, the Balochis, who now reside in Pakistan, and notably the Sikh people (Punjab, Golden Temple).
India was annexed by the British East India Company in the mid-18th century. The Indians became dissatisfied with Company rule, which led to the First War of Indian Independence. After this period India was directly administered by the British Crown, which prompted rapid development and infrastructure growth (architecture of Kolkata). Tea was introduced to India by the British in an attempt to break the Chinese monopoly on the tea trade at the time. The British also introduced cricket, which is a passionate Indian past-time.
The Indian people undertook a long and arduous struggle for independence from the British. It began in the mid-1800s and continued for around a hundred years. There were multiple conflicts and movements. Mahatma Gandhi arose to prominence during the early parts of the 20th century. After travelling and practising law he returned to India and began peaceful protests in an attempt to gain independence for the country. The struggle for independence captured the entire nation. The Indian National Congress officially launched the campaign, who was later joined by the Muslim League. India gained independence from the British Raj in 1947.
he known history of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent, from c. 3300 to 1300 BCE. Its Mature Harappan period lasted from 2600-1900 BCE.
Later, successive empires and kingdoms ruled the region and enriched its culture - from the Achaemenid Persian empire around 543BCE to Alexander the Great in 326 BCE.
The subcontinent was united under the Maurya Empire during the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. It subsequently became fragmented.
Kerala had maritime business links with the Roman Empire from around AD 77. Muslim rule in the subcontinent began in 712 CE when the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab, setting the stage for several successive invasions between the 10th and 15th centuries CE from Central Asia, leading to the formation of Muslim empires in the Indian subcontinent.
The Mughal Empire suffered a gradual decline in the early eighteenth century, which provided opportunities for the Afghans, Balochis and Sikhs to exercise control over large areas in the northwest of the subcontinent until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia.
Beginning in the mid-18th century and over the next century, India was gradually annexed by the British East India Company. Dissatisfaction with Company rule led to the First War of Indian Independence, after which India was directly administered by the British Crown and witnessed a period of both rapid developments of infrastructure and economic decline.
During the first half of the 20th century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress and later joined by the Muslim League. The subcontinent gained independence from Great Britain in 1947, after being partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan.
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